This blog tracks updates to the Blood Sugar 101 Web site.

Monday, December 28, 2009

Afro-American Genes Linked to Poor Carbohydrate Metabolism

Page Changed: You Did Not Eat Your Way to Diabetes

Added the following:

Genes Linked to African Heritage Linked to Poor Carbohydrate Metabolism

It has long been known that African-Americans have a much higher rate of diabetes and metabolic syndrome than the American population as a whole. This has been blamed on lifestyle, but a 2009 genetic study finds strong evidence that the problem is genetic.

The study reports,
Using genetic samples obtained from a cohort of subjects undergoing cardiac-related evaluation, a strict algorithm that filtered for genomic features at multiple levels identified 151 differentially-expressed genes between Americans of African ancestry and those of European ancestry. Many of the genes identified were associated with glucose and simple sugar metabolism, suggestive of a model whereby selective adaptation to the nutritional environment differs between populations of humans separated geographically over time.
In the full text discussion the authors state,
These results suggest that differences in glucose metabolism between Americans of African and European may reside at the transcriptional level. The down-regulation of these genes in the AA cohorts argues against these changes being a compensatory response to hyperglycemia and suggests instead a genetic adaptation to changes in the availability of dietary sugars that may no longer be appropriate to a Western Diet.
In conclusion the authors note that the vegetarian diet of the Seventh Day Adventists, often touted as proof of the usefulness of the "Diet Pyramid" doesn't provide the touted health benefits to people of African American Heritage. Obviously, when hundreds of carbohydrate metabolizing genes aren't working properly the diet needed is a low carbohydrate diet.

The study is available in full text here:

Stable Patterns of Gene Expression Regulating Carbohydrate Metabolism Determined by Geographic AncestryJonathan C. Schisler et. al. PLoS One 4(12): e8183. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008183

Sunday, December 20, 2009

ONE Hour GTT Result over 155 Correlates with Markers for Cardiovascular Disease

Pages Changed: A1c and Post Meal Blood Sugar Predict Heart Attack and Research Connectiong Organ Damage with Blood Sugar Level

Added the following text to both pages:

One Hour OGTT Result over 155 mg/dl(8.6 mmol/L) Correlates with Markers for Cardiovascular Disease

A study published in November of 2009 linked blood sugar readings one hour after ingesting glucose with high fibrinogen and leukocytes count (WBC), which point to subclinical inflammation, and with abnormal lipid ratios, and insulin sensitivity in a population of 1062 participants with normal glucose tolerance or prediabetes. "Normal" glucose tolerance as defined by doctors and researchers means a 2 hour blood sugar reading of under 140 mg/dl on an oral glucose tolerance test.

This study found
Elevated 1hPG [one hour plasma glucose] in NGT [people with normal glucose tolerance] and pre-DM subjects is associated to subclinical inflammation, high lipid ratios and insulin resistance. Therefore, 1hPG >155 mg/dl could be considered a new 'marker' for cardiovascular risk.
This strongly supports the message I have been emphasizing on this web site since 2004 that it is essential to keep one hour blood sugar reading after meals under 140 mg/dl.

The reliance of doctors on two hour glucose tolerance test results allows people to live for years with blood sugars high enough to promote complications long before they are diagnosed even pre-diabetes.

Inflammation markers and metabolic characteristics of subjects with one-hour plasma glucose levels. Gianluca Bardini et al. Diabetes Care Published online before print November 16, 2009, doi: 10.2337/dc09-134

Thursday, December 3, 2009

New Page on Non-Fat Related Weight Gain and Loss Added to Low Carb Site

Page added: Don't Be Taken in By Fake Weight Loss or Fake Gain

Added a page to the Low Carb sister site of Blood Sugar 101 explaining the impact of factors including glycogen levels, dehydration, and salt on weight.

Many fad diets exploit people's misunderstanding of what causes very fast weight loss. Many people who eat low carb diets don't understand why it is so easy to "regain" a lot of weight after only eating a high carb diet for a day or two.

This page explains these phenomena.